Saturday, January 2, 2010

Proofs of the authenticity of Islam

Chapter Four
Proofs of the authenticity of Islam

Among the things that testify to the fact that the Qur'an is a revelation from ‎Allah is that it contains stories of the past nations, prophesied future events ‎that came to happen as it has been prophesied, and the fact that it mentions many ‎scientific facts that have not been discovered until recently. Another proof of its ‎being a divinely revealed Book is that the Prophet on whom it was revealed ‎was unknown with anything similar to that or reported to have known anything ‎similar to the Qur'an.

It also contains many proofs and signs that dazzle the scientists and that are ‎suitable for all generations and ages; and in which many scholars and ‎researchers find what they look for.

Here are some examples that reveal ‎some of these facts:
1- Samples of Scientific Miracles in the Holy Qur'an:
a- The smothering of the smelling in the highest places

{{And whomsoever Allâh wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islâm, and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted, as if he is climbing up to the sky. Thus Allâh puts the wrath on those who believe not.}}
(Holy Qur'an 6:125)

The Scientific Fact:-
People are used to think that whenever they go to the highest places, they would smell the freshest air they could ever smell. Though, the new discovery of the modern science has stated that whenever the more the person goes upwards the lesser the oxygen gets in the air. The scholar have assured frankly about this absolute truth that have been already confirmed in the Holy Qur'an. It goes without saying that this utter confirmation underlines the truthfulness of the Holy Qur'an and its enunciation from the Lord.

b- Pharaoh died because he got drowned:

{{And We took the Children of Israel across the sea, and Fir'aun (Pharaoh) with his hosts followed them in oppression and enmity, till when drowning overtook him, he said: "I believe that Lâ ilâha illa (Huwa): (none has the right to be worshipped but) He," in Whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am one of the Muslims (those who submit to Allâh's Will).". Now (you believe) while you refused to believe before and you were one of the Mufsidûn (evil-doers, corrupts, etc.)}}
(Holy Qur'an 10:90-92)

The Scientific Fact:-
The body of Pharaoh was invited to France. Pharaoh was presented in France as a respectful king even though he was dead many centuries ago. A good number of scholars in medicine has greeted that body and received in their laboratories. An outstanding doctor, Maurice Bucaille, had been studying the body of Pharaoh for three days. This doctor has discovered that the main reason of Pharaoh's death was drowning. He confirmed this utter fact to his friends. One of the doctors had told him that this went in tandem with what the Muslims claimed its confirmation in the Holy Qur'an. All of a sudden, Doctor Bucaille said: "This must not be a word of a man but the Holy Word of God!" Doctor Bucaille went to Saudi Arabia in a scientific seminar. He asked about the drowning of the body of Pharaoh that had been mentioned in the Holy Qur'an as well as he mentioned that he himself discovered the fact while treating the body of Pharaoh. As soon as he had seen the verses of the Qur'an, he spontaneously stated, "there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah". He has written a marvelous book whose title is: Science in the Bible and the Holy Qur'an". This Book has confirmed many scientific matters that are simply in harmony with the holy verses of the Qur'an.

c- The Lowest Area on Earth:

{{The Romans have been defeated. In the nearer land (Syria, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine), and they, after their defeat, will be victorious. Within three to nine years. The decision of the matter, before and after (these events) is only with Allâh, (before the defeat of Romans by the Persians, and after, i.e. the defeat of the Persians by the Romans). And on that Day, the believers (i.e. Muslims) will rejoice (at the victory given by Allâh to the Romans against the Persians), With the help of Allâh, He helps whom He wills, and He is the All¬Mighty, the Most Merciful. (It is) a Promise of Allâh (i.e. Allâh will give victory to the Romans against the Persians), and Allâh fails not in His Promise, but most of men know not.}} (Holy Qur'an 30:1-6)

The Scientific Fact:-
History books tell us about a battle between the Persian and the Byzantine empires – the latter signifies the eastern part of the Roman Empire - which was located in the area between Adhra`at and Basra, near the Dead Sea. The battle, which occurred in 619 A.C., ended with the victory of the Persians.

The Romans received a severe blow in that battle and everyone at that time expected their kingdom to fall. Surprisingly, they were engaged in another battle in 622 A.C. in the area of Nineveh where they defeated the Persians and occupied many areas. Some months later, the Byzantines signed an agreement with the Persians according to which they returned all previously occupied areas.

Geographical atlases show that the lowest spot on the surface of the earth is the area near the Dead Sea where the surface of the earth is as low as 395 meters below sea level. Photos taken by satellites support this fact.

Not to mention that the pagan Quraysh of Mecca rejoiced at the overthrow of Rome by Persia. They were pro-Persian, and in their heart of hearts they hoped that the nascent movement of Islam, which at that time was, from a worldly point of view, very weak and helpless, would also collapse under their persecution. But they misread the true Signs of the times. They are told here that they would soon be disillusioned in their calculations, and it actually so happened at the battle of Issus in 622 (the year of Hijrat) and in 624, when Heraclius carried his campaign into the heart of Persia and the Meccan Quraysh were beaten off at Badr. (Footnote of The Holy Qur'an English Translation in the Madinah, p1176/3506)

d- The Qur’an on the Origin of the Universe:

The science of modern cosmology, observational and theoretical, clearly indicates that, at one point in time, the whole universe was nothing but a cloud of ‘smoke’ (i.e. an opaque highly dense and hot gaseous composition).1 This is one of the undisputed principles of standard modern cosmology. Scientists now can observe new stars forming out of the remnants of that ‘smoke’.

The illuminating stars we see at night were, just as was the whole universe, in that ‘smoke’ material. Allah has said in the Qur’an:
{{…Then He Istawâ (rose over) towards the heaven when it was smoke.}}
(Holy Qur'an 41:11)

Because the earth and the heavens above (the sun, the moon, stars, planets, galaxies, etc.) have been formed from this same ‘smoke,’ we conclude that the earth and the heavens were one connected entity. Then out of this homogeneous ‘smoke,’ they formed and separated from each other. Allah has said in the Qur’an:
{{Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?}} (Holy Qur'an 21: 30)

Dr. Alfred Kroner is one of the world’s renowned geologists. He is Professor of Geology and the Chairman of the Department of Geology at the Institute of Geosciences, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany. He said:
“Thinking where Muhammad came from . . . I think it is almost impossible that he could have known about things like the common origin of the universe, because scientists have only found out within the last few years, with very complicated and advanced technological methods, that this is the case.”

Also he said:
“Somebody who did not know something about nuclear physics fourteen hundred years ago could not, I think, be in a position to find out from his own mind, for instance, that the earth and the heavens had the same origin.”

- The First Three Minutes, a Modern View of the Origin of the Universe, Weinberg, pp. 94-105.

e- The Qur’an on Mountains:

A book entitled Earth is a basic reference textbook in many universities around the world. One of its two authors is Professor Emeritus Frank Press. He was the Science Advisor to former US President Jimmy Carter, and for 12 years was the President of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. His book says that mountains have underlying roots. These roots are deeply embedded in the ground, thus, mountains have a shape like a peg. This is how the Qur’an has described mountains. Allah has said in the Qur’an:

{{And the mountains as pegs...}} (Holy Qur'an 78: 7)

Modern earth sciences have proven that mountains have deep roots under the surface of the ground and that these roots can reach several times their elevations above the surface of the ground. 1 So the most suitable word to describe mountains on the basis of this information is the word ‘peg,’ since most of a properly set peg is hidden under the surface of the ground.

The history of science tells us that the theory of mountains having deep roots was introduced only in 1865 by the Astronomer Royal, Sir George Airy. 2 Mountains also play an important role in stabilizing the crust of the earth. 3 They hinder the shaking of the earth. Allah has said in the Qur’an:
{{And He has affixed into the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you,..}}
(Holy Qur'an 21: 30)

Likewise, the modern theory of plate tectonics holds that mountains work as stabilizers for the earth. This knowledge about the role of mountains as stabilizers for the earth has just begun to be understood in the framework of plate tectonics since the late 1960’s.
Could anyone during the time of the Prophet Muhammad have known of the true shape of mountains?

Could anyone imagine that the solid massive mountain which he sees before him actually extends deep into the earth and has a root, as scientists affirm? Modern geology has confirmed the truth of the Qur’anic verses.

Ref: - Earth, Press and Siever, p. 435. Also see Earth Science, Tarbuck and Lutgens, p. 157.
- The Geological Concept of Mountains in the Qur’an, El-Naggar,p. 5. p. 44-45

f- The Qur’an on Clouds:

Scientists have studied cloud types and have realized that rain clouds are formed and shaped according to definite systems and certain steps connected with certain types of wind and clouds.

One kind of rain cloud is the cumulonimbus cloud. Meteorologists have studied how cumulonimbus clouds are formed and how they produce rain, hail, and lightning.

They have found that cumulonimbus clouds go through the following steps to produce rain:

1) The clouds are pushed by the wind: Cumulonimbus clouds begin to form when wind pushes some small pieces of clouds (cumulus clouds) to an area where these clouds converge.

2) Joining: Then the small clouds join together forming a larger cloud.

3) Stacking: When the small clouds join together, updrafts within the larger cloud increase. The updrafts near the center of the cloud are stronger than those near the edges. These updrafts cause the cloud body to grow vertically, so the cloud is stacked up. This vertical growth causes the cloud body to stretch into cooler regions of the atmosphere, where drops of water and hail formulate and begin to grow larger and larger. When these drops of water and hail become too heavy for the updrafts to support them, they begin to fall from the cloud as rain, hail, etc...

Allah has said in the Qur’an:

{{See you not that Allâh drives the clouds gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap of layers, and you see the rain comes forth from between them. And He sends down from the sky hail (like) mountains, and strike therewith whom He will, and averts it from whom He wills. The vivid flash of its (clouds) lightning nearly blinds the sight.}}
(Holy Qur'an 24: 43)

Meteorologists have only recently come to know these details of cloud formation, structure, and function by using advanced equipment like planes, satellites, computers, balloons, and other equipment, to study wind and its direction, to measure humidity
and its variations, and to determine the levels and variations of atmospheric pressure.

The preceding verse, after mentioning clouds and rain, speaks about hail and lightning:
{{.... And He sends down from the sky hail (like) mountains, and strike therewith whom He will, and averts it from whom He wills. The vivid flash of its (clouds) lightning nearly blinds the sight.}}
(Holy Qur'an 24: 43)

Urologists have found that these cumulonimbus clouds, that shower hail, reach a height of 25,000 to 30,000 ft (4.7 to 5.7 miles),2 like mountains, as the Qur’an said: {{.... And He sends down from the sky hail (like) mountains,}}

This verse may raise a question. Why does the verse say “its lightning” in a reference to the hail? Does this mean that hail is the major factor in producing lightning? Let us see what the book entitled Meteorology Today says about this. It says that a cloud becomes electrified as hail falls through a region in the cloud of super cooled droplets and ice crystals. As liquid droplets collide with a hailstone, they freeze on contact and release latent heat.

This keeps the surface of the hailstone warmer than that of the surrounding ice crystals. When the hailstone comes in contact with an ice crystal, an important phenomenon occurs: electrons flow from the colder object toward the warmer object. Hence, the hailstone becomes negatively charged. The same effect occurs when supercooled droplets come in contact with a hailstone and tiny splinters of positively charged ice break off.
These lighter positively charged particles are then carried to the upper part of the cloud by updrafts. The hail, left with a negative charge, falls towards the bottom of the cloud, thus the lower part of the cloud becomes negatively charged. These negative charges are then discharged as lightning. 1 We conclude from this that hail is the major factor in producing lightning.

This information on lightning was discovered recently. Until 1600 AD, Aristotle’s ideas on meteorology were dominant. For example, he said that the atmosphere contains two kinds of exhalation, moist and dry. He also said that thunder is the sound of the collision of the dry exhalation with the neighbouring clouds, and lightning is the inflaming and burning of the dry exhalation with a thin and faint fire.1 These are some of the ideas on meteorology that were dominant at the time of the Qur’an’s revelation, fourteen centuries ago.

Allah Said in Holly Qur’an:
{{And We send the winds fertilizing (to fill heavily the clouds with water), then caused the water (rain) to descend from the sky, and We gave it to you to drink, and it is not you who are the owners of its stores [i.e. to give water to whom you like or to withhold it from whom you like].}} (Holy Qur'an 15:22)

The previous chapter of Holy Qur'an , includes a great scientific fact , where the wind has a part in the inoculation of some plants , and also the word can be used to show the effect of winds to collect different clouds with two different electric charges ( positive & negative ) , in which is considered as a marriage or an inoculation.
- Atmosphere, Anthes and others, pp. 268-269, and Elements of Meteorology, Miller and Thompson, p. 141.
- Meteorology Today, Ahrens, p. 437.
- The Works of Aristotle Translated into English: Meteorologica, vol. 3, Ross and others, pp. 369a-369b.

g-The Qur’an on Deep Seas and Internal Waves:

Allah has said in the Qur’an:

{{ Or [the state of a disbeliever] is like the darkness in a vast deep sea, overwhelmed with a great wave topped by a great wave, topped by dark clouds, darkness, one above another, if a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! And he for whom Allâh has not appointed light, for him there is no light...}}
(Holly Qur’an, 24:40)

This verse mentions the darkness found in deep seas and oceans, where if a man stretches out his hand, he cannot see it. The darkness in deep seas and oceans is found around a depth of 200 meters and below. At this depth, there is almost no light. Below a depth of 1000 meters there is no light at all. Human beings are not able to dive more than forty meters without the aid of submarines or special equipment. Human beings cannot survive unaided in the deep dark part of the oceans, such as at a depth of 200 meters.

Scientists have recently discovered this darkness by means of special equipment and submarines that have enabled them to dive into the depths of the oceans.

We can also understand from the following sentences in the previous verse, “ a vast deep sea, overwhelmed with a great wave topped by a great wave, topped by dark clouds, darkness,...”, that the deep waters of seas and oceans are covered by waves, and above these waves are other waves. It is clear that the second sets of waves are the surface waves that we see, because the verse mentions that above the second waves there are clouds, But what about the first waves? Scientists have recently discovered that there are internal waves which “occur on density interfaces between layers of different densities.” The internal waves cover the deep waters of seas and oceans because the deep waters have a higher density than the waters above them. Internal waves act like surface waves. They can also break, just like surface waves. Internal waves cannot be seen by the human eye, but they can be detected by studying temperature or salinity changes at a given location.
Ref: Oceans, Elder and Pernetta, p. 27. - Oceanography, Gross, p. 205.

2-Challenge to Produce Like the Holy Qur'an

Allah has said in the Qur'an:

{{And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Qur'an) to Our slave (Muhammad Peace be upon him), then produce a Surah (chapter) of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allâh, if you are truthful. But if you do it not, and you can never do it, then fear the Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers.}} (Holly Qur’an 2: 23-24)

Ever since the Qur'an was revealed, fourteen centuries ago, no one has been ‎able to produce a single chapter like the chapters of the Qur'an in their beauty, ‎eloquence, splendor, wise legislation, true information, true prophecy, and ‎other perfect attributes. Also, note that the smallest chapter in the Qur'an ‎‎ (Chapter 108) is only ten words, yet no one has ever been able to meet this ‎challenge, then or today. Some of the disbelieving Arabs who were enemies of ‎the Prophet Muhammad-peace be upon him- tried to meet this challenge to ‎prove that Muhammad -peace be upon him- was not a true prophet, but they ‎failed to do so. This failure was despite the fact that the Holy Qur'an was ‎revealed in their own language and dialect and that the Arabs at the time of ‎Muhammad -peace be upon him- were very eloquent people who used to ‎compose beautiful and excellent poetry, still read and appreciated today.‎

3-Islam is Foretold in the Holy Book:

In Deuteronomy 18, Prophet Moses stated that God told him: “I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers; I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him. If anyone does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name, I myself will call him to account.” (Deuteronomy 18:18-19)

From these verses we conclude that the prophet in this prophecy must have the following three characteristics:

1) That he will be like Moses.

2) That he will come from the brothers of the Israelites, i.e. the Ishmaelites.

3) That God will put His words in to the mouth of this prophet and that he will declare what God commands him.

Let us examine these three characteristics in more depth:

a) A prophet like Moses:

There were hardly any two prophets who were so much alike as Moses and Muhammad. Both were given a comprehensive law and code of life. They both had encountered their enemies and were victorious in miraculous ways. They both were accepted as prophets and statesmen. They both migrated following conspiracies to assassinate them. Analogies between Moses and Jesus overlook not only the above similarities but other crucial ones as well. These include the natural birth, the family life, and the death of Moses and Muhammad. All these facts differentiate Moses from Jesus, peace be upon them. Moreover Jesus was regarded by his followers as the Son of God and not exclusively as a prophet of God, as Moses and Muhammad were and as Muslims believe Jesus was. So, this prophecy refers to the Prophet Muhammad-peace be upon him- and not to Jesus, because Muhammad is more similar to Moses than Jesus.

Also, one notices from the Gospel of John that the Jews were waiting for the fulfillment of three distinct prophecies. The first was the coming of Christ. The second was the coming of Elijah. The third was the coming of the Prophet. This is obvious from the three questions that were posed to John the Baptist:

“Now this was John’s testimony, when the Jews of Jerusalem sent priests and Levites to ask him who he was. He did not fail to confess, but confessed freely, “I am not the Christ.” They asked him, “Then who are you? Are you Elijah?” He said, “I am not.” “Are you the Prophet?” He answered, “No.” (John 1:19-21).
If we look in a Bible with cross-references, we will find in the marginal notes where the word “the Prophet” occurs in John 1:21 is the same one that refers to the prophecy of Deuteronomy 18:15 and 18:18.2. Accordingly, we conclude from this gauging that Jesus Christ is not the prophet mentioned in Deuteronomy 18:18.

b) From the brothers of the Israelites:

Abraham had two sons, Ishmael and Isaac (Genesis 21). Ishmael became the grandfather of the Arab nation, and Isaac became the grandfather of the Jewish nation. The prophet spoken of was not to come from among the Jews themselves, but from among their brothers, i.e. the Ishmaelites. Muhammad, a descendant of Ishmael, is indeed this prophet.

Also, Isaiah 42:1-13 speaks of the servant of God, His “chosen one” and “messenger” who will bring down a law. “He will not falter or be discouraged till he establishes justice on earth. In his law the islands will put their hope.” (Isaiah 42:4). Verse 11, connects that awaited one with the descendants of Kedar. Who is Kedar? According to Genesis 25:13, Kedar was the second son of Ishmael, the ancestor of the Prophet Muhammad {peace be upon him}.

c) God will put His words in the mouth of this prophet:

The words of God (the Holy Qur'an) were truly put into Muhammad’s mouth. Allah Almighty sent the Angel Gabriel to teach Muhammad the exact words of God (the Holy Qur'an) and asked him to dictate them to the people as he heard them. The words are therefore not his own. They did not come from his own thoughts, but were put into his mouth by the Angel Gabriel. During the life time of Muhammad-peace be upon him- and under his supervision, these words were then memorized and written by his companions.

Also, this prophecy in Deuteronomy mentioned that this prophet will speak the words of God in the name of God. If we looked to the Holy Qur'an, we will find that all its chapters, except Chapter 9, are preceded or begin with the phrase, “In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.”

Another indication (other than the prophecy in Deuteronomy) is that Isaiah ties the messenger connected with Kedar with a new song (a scripture in a new language) to be sung to the Lord (Isaiah 42:10-11). This is mentioned more clearly in the prophecy of Isaiah: “and another tongue, he will speak to this people” (Isaiah 28:11 KJV). Another related point focuses on the revelation of the Holy Qur'an in sections over a span of twenty-three years. It is interesting to compare this with Isaiah 28 which speaks of the same thing, “For it is: Do and do, do and do, rule on rule, rule on rule; a little here, a little there.” (Isaiah 28:10)